With this knowledge, you can extend the amount of time you can spend driving your EV. The proliferation of EV chargers, however, can be attributed to the novelty of the technology. Without a universal pricing structure, there is a persistent competition for market dominance.
All the muddled thinking is due to these distinctions. A universal benchmark can be set once the technology has developed to its full potential. Let’s have a look at all the charging options together.
EV Charging Cables and their Types
Cables for charging are often pre-installed at charging stations. On the other hand, some may insist that drivers carry their own charging equipment.
Charging cables are essential to the success of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure in California. There are four distinct charging cable types, each with their own specific application.
It’s not often clear what each mode actually achieves. The variations go beyond the charge rate.
Mode 1 Cables
Mode To charge an electric vehicle, you just plug the vehicle’s dedicated wire into any regular household electrical outlet. No safeguards are in place to prevent electrocution.
Large electric vehicles are not well-suited to use with Mode 1 wires. They excel when paired with low-horsepower vehicles like scooters and electric bicycles.
Due to the dangers they pose, they are banned in many areas.
Mode 2 Cables
In California, the majority of EVs will have Mode 2 charging ports standard. A technology built into these cables prevents users from receiving electric shocks.
They have a direct connection to the EV and any regular household outlet. Mode A specialized control and protection device is embedded within two of the cables (IC-CPD).
By doing so, the automobile and the outlet can begin exchanging data. Using mode 2 cords to charge your car is not only secure, but also incredibly convenient.
Power output is limited to just 2.3 kW, which is the only real drawback. To charge an electric vehicle with one can take a very long period because of this.
Even with IC-CPD in place, mishaps can and do occur. Misuse of Mode 2 cables might result in serious injury. Drivers should only ever connect their vehicles using Mode 2 wires in an actual crash.
Mode 3 Cables
More and more electric vehicle manufacturers are transitioning to use mode 3 charging cords. A special charging station for electric vehicles is linked to the car via these cables.
Public spaces and parking lots are common locations for these stations. The charging is completely managed by the cables. They prevent drivers from being electrocuted as well.
Mode There are three wires needed to link a Type 1 or Type 2 plug.
Mode 4 Cables
California’s electric car fleet is powered by alternating current (AC) via Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3 wires. An on-board AC/DC converter then converts the current to DC power.
Mode The DC charging method used by the fourth cable is unique. Before being transferred to the EV, the electricity undergoes a DC conversion.
This is also referred to as “ultra-fast charging” because of how quickly it can replenish a battery. It can produce a lot of heat because it supplies so much power to the battery.
Liquid cooling is used by EV manufacturers to reduce internal temperatures.
A Quick Overview of Electric Car Chargers
Many variables affect how quickly a device may be charged. A few examples are the part itself, the power source, the charging station, the in-vehicle charger, and the charging cable.
The connector on a charging cable is the most vital component. It would be difficult to charge your electric vehicle without the proper charger.
The type of charging port most commonly used is determined by geography. The charging cords required to use an AC charging station are not included in the stations themselves. The EV charging wire must be carried by the driver at all times.
The issue of incompatible connectors is therefore resolved. However, wires are present in every DC charging station.
The primary motivations for doing so are limiting the flow of current and ensuring the system’s integrity. This is why looking for appropriate connectors is so important.
No standard connector for EVs exists as of this writing. Plugs, charging ports, and cables can all be found in a wide range of sizes.
The accompanying table demonstrates that there is a significant regional variation. Plugs designated as “CSS-Type 1” are standard for electric car components sold in California.
The many kinds of connections are discussed in the next section.
For their initial charges, the first electric cars relied on inductive connections. Due of its low efficiency, this technique is now considered antiquated.
Supporters are adamant about going back to inductive charging. The J1772-2001 connections, however, have since taken their place. It functioned by connecting to the car’s stereo system.
J1772 – Type 1
The J1772 plug standard for California’s electric vehicles debuted in the early 2000s. However, it could only produce a meager 6.6 kW at most.
In 2008, Yazaki introduced the newer J1772 – Type 1 plug, which eventually succeeded it. Type 1 plugs, sometimes called J-plugs, can deliver 19.2 kW of power.
The J1772 specification is supported by a wide variety of European electric vehicles. Type 1 connectors are used in hybrids and older automobiles.
Using AC stations shouldn’t be problematic because most drivers have their own cable. Both North America and some regions of Asia utilize the Type 1 connector.
The plug may only be used in a single-phase system, which is the major drawback. A built-in locking mechanism is not supported.
The Type 2 plug was developed in response to the need for a more rapid connectivity. European car manufacturers pushed for all three stages.
As of 2003, Mennekes, or Type 2, plugs have completely replaced Type 1 plugs in production. The J1772 standard underpins both Type 1 and Type 2 communication.
A Type 2 plug has various advantages over a Type 1 plug. They not only increase power output, but also provide an automatic locking mechanism.
The name “Mennekes” is derived from the German fashion designer of the same name. It wasn’t long before people started using the word to refer to the plug interchangeably.
Manufacturers of automobiles were thus able to implement EVs through analogous mechanisms. Next, they’d put in the appropriate plug for the intended audience.
Both the European Model X and Model S from Tesla use Type 2 connectors (slightly altered). For your convenience, they can be used at any AC charging station. This is the same plug used by Tesla’s Supercharger Networks.
Type 2 connectors’ power ratings are site-specific. The maximum available power at a public station is 43 kW. Licensed private stations are limited to 22 kilowatts.
The Guobiao Standardization Commission worked with the Chinese government to create the GB/T plug. The term “plug” originates from this usage.
To this day, it remains China’s only plug standard. As a result, China’s electric vehicle sector has been standardized.
Charging an electric vehicle in China doesn’t pose any compatibility issues for drivers. Additionally, China boasts a very advanced network of charging stations.
It’s simple to confuse GB/T plugs with Type 2 connectors. However, the pins and receptors on the two are opposite, making them incompatible.
GB/T connectors on a single phase may deliver up to 7.4 kW of power.
CSS Charging Plug
The Combined Charging System (CSS) is a common electrical outlet type in both the Old World and the New World. The name comes from the fact that it may be charged in both direct current and alternating current.
CSS chargers might be one of two different standards.
CSS1 (North America)
CSS1 connectors are modeled after Type 1 power outlets. There are two additional power contacts for DC charging.
North American populations have the highest prevalence of CSS1. In terms of charging technology, it is second only to Tesla’s proprietary Supercharger plug.
Plugs rated as CCS 1 can deliver up to 350 kW of power. As a result, they’re much ahead of their AC rivals.
CSS2 is based on AC plugs of the Type 2 variety. It supports DC rapid charging thanks to its two extra power connectors.
A wide variety of power inputs, from 50 kW to 350 kW, is supported using CCS2 connectors. Also, you can use either a Type 1 or Type 2 AC plug to charge them.
Connector’s top half accommodates these plugs. It is OK to not use the DC power connectors.
CHAdeMO Charging Plug
In Japan, the CHAdeMO charging plug is the norm. The maximum power output that may be used with it is 200 kW.
Importantly, it makes possible the exciting possibility of bidirectional charging.
CHAdeMO plugs have an interesting history in Japan, where automakers initially refused to adopt them. CHAdeMO, on the other hand, is rapidly gaining adherents.
The projected number has increased from 11,000 in 2015 to 45,000 by 2022. You’ll find 22,500 of them in Europe and 8,000 in the Americas.
The efforts of the European Parliament to gradually remove the plug proved fruitless. In Europe, fast charging stations must feature at least one CSS connector, under legislative mandate.
Adding more plugs to charging stations is a breeze. To that end, the use of CHAdeMO connectors is being phased out by automakers.
Over 400 kW of power can be transmitted via CHAdeMO. There is also an ultra-fast connector being developed in China with a power output of 900 kW.
Tesla Charging Plug
Tesla now has its own unique charging port. Over 35,000 Superchargers may be found in its global network.
They could only connect Tesla EVs until recently. Elon Musk, CEO, hinted on Twitter that the network would one day be able to handle more types of EVs.
There is a resemblance between an AC Type 2 outlet and Tesla’s charging plug. Nonetheless, it is exclusive to Tesla EVs and cannot be used to charge other brands.
The Tesla Supercharger network is accessible over the whole North American continent. The rollout, however, also includes Europe.
If you’re in Europe, you’ll be happy to know that Tesla’s Model 3 will support the regionally-specific CSS Type 2 standard.
What are Phases?
The word “phases” is just going to throw everyone off.
There are three stages of the electricity grid. Only one of the three power phases is available during Phase 1. Full charging will take longer as a result.
All three power lanes are available during Phase 3. Charging the EV will be faster with this method.
The cable you use to charge your electric vehicle must be compatible with both your home’s wiring and the charger itself.
How rapidly an EV may be charged is directly related to the phase connection. In the case of single-phase connections, it takes 27 hours to supply 100 kWh, as an example.
However, just 5 hours are needed for 100 kWh to be delivered over three phase connections.
Why You Should Choose a High-Quality Cable
Having extra charging cables on hand is always a smart move. One can remain at home while the other is used to power up while on the road.
Getting a high-quality cable is highly advised. There will be less wear and tear on these wires. They tend to be more reliable and less prone to faults.
Strong materials are used in the construction of high-quality cables. The failure rate of low-quality cables is higher. This is due to the fact that the materials used in their construction could be inferior.
Cable lengths range from 4 meters to 10 meters. More mobility is available with a longer cable. On the other hand, it would be bulkier and cost more.
A shorter wire should be adequate in most circumstances.
There you have it; a complete and comprehensive guide to electric vehicle chargers.
Whenever in doubt, check the vehicle’s manual. Pick a cord whose kilowatt and ampere values are compatible with the car’s charger. Tell me about your own experiences plugging in your electric car to a wall outlet.